Date Published: April 2011
The Indian ringneck parrot (Psittacula krameri) is a pale
yellow-green parrot with a distinguishing long tail which lives in tropical and
subtropical lightly wooded habitats in Africa and Asia. It feeds mainly on
seeds, fruit, flowers and nectar. The behavioural flexibility of the species,
its generalist feeding ecology and its ability to withstand temperate climatic
conditions have contributed to the successful establishment of feral
populations in many countries.
The Indian ringneck parrot is the most widely introduced parrot in the
world, with populations established on five continents. Only Australia and
Antarctica remain uncolonized, although in Western Australia in 2005-2007
several Indian ringneck parrots were removed from the wild that were thought to
have survived in the wild for at least four years. Self-sustaining feral
populations of Indian ringneck parrot occur in Europe, the United States, the
Middle East, Japan, Singapore and several island groups including the Hawaiian,
Canary, Andaman and Maldive islands.
The Indian ringneck parrot is not globally threatened and is listed as least
concern by the IUCN. It is listed by Ghana in Appendix III to the Convention on
International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Flora and Fauna and export
and import of this species is therefore subject to regulation under the
Commonwealth Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999.
In Tasmania the Indian ringneck parrot is currently listed as a controlled
animal under the Nature Conservation Act 2002.
The natural distribution of the Indian ringneck parrot includes areas
similar in climate to Tasmania and as this species is very adaptable there is
potential for this species to establish in Tasmania. If the Indian ringneck
parrot established in Tasmania it is likely to compete with the green rosella (Platycercus
caledonicus), eastern rosella (Platycercus eximius), galah (Cacatua
roseicapilla), sulphur-crested cockatoo (Cacatua galarita) and
yellow-tailed black cockatoo (Calyptorhynchus funereus), as well as the
introduced little and long-billed corellas (Cacatua sanguine and Cacatua
tenuirostris) for food and nest hollows. There is also some potential for
competition with the blue-winged parrot (Neophema chrystoma), orange
bellied parrot (Neophema chrysogaster), musk lorikeet (Glossopsitta
concinna) and swift parrot (Lathamus discolour) for food and other
The establishment of the Indian ringneck parrot in Tasmania also has the
potential for high impact on the agricultural industries such as cereal grains,
oilseeds, grain legumes, fruit, nuts and flowers as the species is known to
cause significant damage to these commodities in other countries.
Indian Ringneck Parrot (Psittacula krameri) (583Kb)