What is boneseed?

(Chrysanthemoides monilifera ssp. monilifera)

Boneseed - flowers and fruit
    Generic Weed Distribution Map
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  • Boneseed (Chrysanthemoides monilifera ssp. monilifera) is a serious environmental weed.
  • Boneseed is a declared weed under the Tasmanian Weed Management Act 1999. The importation, sale and distribution of boneseed are prohibited in Tasmania.
  • Boneseed is also a Weed of N‚Äčational Significance (WONS).

  • How to identify boneseed

    • Boneseed is an evergreen woody shrub growing to 2 metres or more in height and width. The elongated leathery leaves are dull green in colour and around 40 to 70 mm long and 20 to 35 mm wide.
    • Boneseed flowers from mid-spring to early summer. The yellow flowers develop in clusters at the ends of the branches and resemble the flowers of a daisy. The fruits are green and fleshy at first then becoming black at maturity. The fruit eventually flakes off to leave the inner seed exposed.
    • The seeds are hard and bone-like in texture and colour. Seeds are shed during summer and autumn. Heat may crack the seed coat and large numbers of boneseed seedlings may appear after fire.
    • For help in identifying boneseed, search the Dennis Morris Weeds and Endemic Flora database for African boxthorn illustrations. If you are still in doubt about the weed you are dealing with, contact your Regional Weed Management Officer on 1300 368 550 for help.

    Bonseed seedling, Photo: Greg Stewart,East Coast Regional Weed Strategy GroupBoneseed - paddock infestation.  Photo: TIAR
    Image top right: Boneseed flowers and fruit.
    Images above, left to right: Seedling, photo: Greg Stewart, East Coast Regional Weed Strategy Group; Paddock infestation, photo: TIA

    Boneseed in Tasmania

    • Boneseed is common in several coastal areas of Tasmania, especially along the north coast east of Wynyard and on parts of the east coast (see map). Boneseed is common in the Tamar Valley and in and around Hobart. Elsewhere in Tasmania boneseed occurs occasionally as a weed of disturbed bushland and coastal vegetation.
    • Boneseed can invade the understorey of native forests and bushland, and is particularly invasive in coastal areas. Boneseed competes with native plants and reduces biodiversity, and dense infestations can be a significant fire hazard.

    What is the legal status of boneseed in your area?

    The legal responsibilities of landholders and other stakeholders in dealing with boneseed are laid out in the boneseed Statutory Weed Management Plan.

    Use Table 1 (Zone A municipalities) and Table 2 (Zone B municipalities) in the Statutory Weed Management Plan to find out whether your area falls in an eradication or containment zone.

    Detailed management and control guidelines for boneseed can be found in the Boneseed Control Guide. Refer also to Herbicides for Boneseed Control. For further information see DPIPWE's Useful Resources: Weeds.

    See also
    Boneseed Control Guide
    Herbicides for Boneseed Control
    Statutory Management Plan for Boneseed
    DPIPWE's Useful Resources: Weeds

    Other useful links

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