(Passiflora cinnabarina and Passiflora tarminiana)
A large, twining climber to 20m. Large leaves have three lobes and toothed edges. Flowers are large, pink with long, fleshy stalks. Fleshy, oblong fruits ripen to yellow.Dispersal:
Seed spread by birds and animals.Impact:
Smothers or collapses other vegetation, as well as damaging fences and other infrastructure.Control:
Remove all fruit, and either dig out or cut and paint stems, ensuring all stems are treated.Safe Alternative:
. Although not native, the true passionfruit isn't a weed.
A Western Australian native climber, with twisting branches and narrow,
shiny green leaves. Small clusters of blue or white bell-like flowers.Dispersal:
Birds, stem and root fragments.Impact:
Vigorously smothers other vegetation; toxic.Control:
pull seedlings, taking care to remove as much of the root system as
possible; cut and paint larger plants, disposing of material to ensure
seeds and plant parts aren't dispersed.Safe Alternative:
Native blueberry (Billardiera longiflora)
has spectacular purple fruits, but are not as large or self-supporting. A hardy plant that tolerates a variety of conditions.
Blue Butterfly Bush
Erect shrub or small tree with fine, needle-like leaflets in groups of
three. Flowers lilac/blue pea flowers, followed by small, elliptical
pods each containing one dark brown seed.Dispersal:
Seed, by birds, ants, water and in soil and dumped garden waste.Impact:
Seeds prolifically and rapidly replaces native trees and shrubs, especially following fire.Control:
Hand pull seedlings; cut and paint larger plants.
Ground cover with dark green or variegated shiny oval leaves.
Large (6cm across) mauve flowers with five petals.Dispersal:
Stem and root fragments, in water, soil and on machinery.Impact:
Vigorously smothers other vegetation; toxic to livestock.Control:
Heavy mulching may suppress some growth and weaken plants to allow digging out. ALL plant fragments must be removed. Repeated spraying with herbicide after slashing back can be effective.Safe Alternative:
dense ground cover and climber to 10m. Bright green leaves shiny and
ivy-shaped; fragrant yellow daisy flowers in prolific clusters.Dispersal:
Wind-dispersal of seeds; layering of stems.Impact:
Vigorously smothers other vegetation; collapses desirable shrubs and fences; toxic.Control:
Cut climbing stems and leave aerial plant parts to dry out; dig out all roots and layered stems. Regrowth may be sprayed.Safe Alternative:
Cape Leeuwin Wattle
Spreading tall shrub or small tree with dark green, feathery leaves,
and greenish-yellow bottlebrush-shaped flowers. Long, flat green
seedpods turn dark brown in summer. Seeds round, black, hard.Dispersal:
Long lived seeds by water, ants, soil and dumped garden waste.Impact:
Replaces native vegetation, especially on lighter soils.Control:
Hand pull (quite large plants can have shallow root systems); cut and
There are a number of Tasmanian native Acacia species with similar characteristics. Choose one local to your area.
Large shrub to 5m with oval leaves, lighter underneath. Large clusters
of strongly scented small white/cream flowers produce clusters of bright
Seeds, by birds and animals.Impact:
Competes with native species in a variety of native bush communities; fruit are poisonous in large amounts.Control:
Hand pull small seedlings; cut and paint larger shrubs.Safe Alternative:
A biennial herb with a rosette of soft, blue-grey hairy leaves that
produces a tall flower spike of white, pink or purple tubular flowers
with dark mottling.Dispersal:
Tiny seeds in wind, water, and soil.Impact:
Invades wet forests, riparian and alpine areas, where it replaces native herbs. Extremely toxic to livestock and humans.Control:
Dig out or hand pull flowering plants, ensuring there is no contact
with sap. Rosettes can be spot-sprayed or wiped with herbicide.
Dense, sprawling multi-stemmed shrub with pinkish stems and narrow,
slightly toothed leaves. Flowers are deep red or pink, drooping and
lantern-shaped, producing a pale or translucent drupe (fruit) in
Seeds from birds and in water; broken stems.Impact:
Of the many hundreds of fuchsia hybrids and cultivars, only this species has become weedy. It can completely dominate riverbanks, excluding all other plants and promoting erosion.Control:
Small plants can be dug out; larger plants require cut and paint.Safe Alternative:
All other species of fuchsia are safe to plant.
Low growing herb with long, narrow leaves that are dark green above and
whitish below. The large, bright daisy flower (yellow, orange, red) has
black near the centre.Dispersal:
Seed by wind, water or soil movement.Impact:
Can dominate light, sandy soils, including beach sands, where it replaces native plants and alters dune formation.Control:
Hand pull individual plants.
Dense woody climber with glossy dark green leaves (occasionally
variegated) that vary in shape from typical lobed ivy-shape to
egg-shape. Small flowers produce dark berries in clusters.Dispersal:
Seeds spread by birds; root fragments, typically in garden waste.Impact:
Vigorously smothers other vegetation; collapses desirable shrubs and
fences; all plant parts are poisonous and sap can cause skin irritation.Control:
Hand pull or dig out small plants, removing all roots and layering
stems; cut and paint larger plants, treating all rooting stems.Safe Alternative:
Shrub to 8m with roundish, very glossy green leaves. Flowers are
inconspicuous: female white, tubular in groups of three; male in
greenish clusters. Fleshy orange-red berries ripen in summer.Dispersal:
Seeds, by birds and animals.Impact:
Replaces native vegetation, especially in coastal areas.Control:
Hand pull small plants; cut and paint larger ones.
Safe Alternative: Native currant
(Coprosma quadfrifida). In exposed situations, boobyalla (Acacia sophorae) is a tough, attractive alternative.
Description: Perennial coastal herb growing up to one metre tall. The woody root crown produces 1-10 stems, each producing 3-5 terminal, fertile branches. Fleshy, bluish-green leaves 5-30 mm long overlap along the length of the stems. Small, inconspicuous green flowers produced in the terminal inflorescences from September to May.
Dispersal: Buoyant, seawater-resistant seeds are produced in a capsule and released explosively upon maturity. They can be spread over long distances by ocean currents. Sea spurge can be found around much of the Tasmanian coast.
Impact: Sea spurge invades upper beach and dune habitats, resulting in alterations to beach and dune formation, and displacement of native flora and of nesting habitats.
Control: Hand pull, heat treatment, and herbicide. Permanent eradication is extremely difficult.
A shrub or small tree with shiny, oval leaves with wavy edges, lighter
underneath. Flowers creamy-white and sweetly scented, followed by
clusters of orange fleshy fruit.Dispersal:
Seed by birds, animals, water; root-fragments in water, soil and dumped garden waste.Impact:
Replaces native vegetation in a wide range of bush types, including wet forest and coastal areas.Control:
Hand pull small plants, ensuring all roots are removed; cut and paint.Safe Alternative:
a Tasmanian native pittosporum; native laurel
has similar foliage; Christmas bush
has a similar shape and masses of flowers in early summer.
A deciduous tree with smooth, grey bark turning reddish, and maple
leaves. Flowers small and greenish, followed by wing shaped seeds.Dispersal:
Seeds dispersed by wind with a distinctive propeller motion; also in water, soil. Sprouts from dumped prunings.Impact:
Invades wet and damp forests and riverbanks, where it replaces native
trees and shrubs, destroying food and habitat sources for native birds
Hand pull small seedlings; cut and paint or drill and fill larger plants.
Dense, weeping shrub to 6m; leaflets hairy, and in threes; masses of
fragrant, creamy-white pea-shaped flowers, followed by downy green
seedpods that turn brown.Dispersal:
Pods eject seeds; seed also transported by animals, ants and soil movement.Impact:
Replaces native vegetation; long-lived seeds.Control:
Hand pull seedlings, cut-and paint larger plants.Safe Alternative:
and hop bush
in dry areas; local Tasmanian native acacias for high rainfall areas.
Creeper with trailing, brittle and slightly succulent stems to 4m;
clusters of small white flowers, each with three petals, at the end of
Roots from the nodes; grows from stem pieces.Impact:
Completely smothers ground layer, replacing other plants.Control:
Carefully dig out whole plant ensuring all of the plant is removed and disposed of.