Did you know?
The Tasmanian devil was declared the State's official animal emblem in May 2015. Find out more.
The Tasmanian devil (Sarcophilus harrisii
cannot be mistaken for any other marsupial. Its spine-chilling
screeches, black colour, and reputed bad-temper, led the early European
settlers to call it The Devil. Although only the size of a small dog, it
can sound and look incredibly fierce.
Have a listen to a typical vocalisation
of the Tasmanian devil and you will see what we mean!
once occurred on mainland Australia, with fossils having been found
widely. But it is believed the devil became extinct on the mainland some
400 years ago - before European settlement. Devils probably became
extinct there due to increasing aridity and the spread of the dingo,
which was prevented by Bass Strait from entering Tasmania.
the devil is a Tasmanian icon. But it hasn't always held this status.
Tasmanian devils were considered a nuisance by early European settlers
of Hobart Town, who complained of raids on poultry yards. In 1930 the
Van Diemen's Land Co. introduced a bounty scheme to remove devils, as
well as Tasmanian tigers and wild dogs, from their northwest properties:
2/6 (25 cents) for male devils and 3/6 (35 cents) for females.
more than a century, devils were trapped and poisoned. They became very
rare, seemingly headed for extinction. But the population gradually
increased after they were protected by law in June 1941.
world's largest surviving carnivorous marsupial, the devil has a
thick-set, squat build, with a relatively large, broad head and short,
thick tail. The fur is mostly or wholly black, but white markings often
occur on the rump and chest. Body size also varies greatly, depending on
the diet and habitat. Adult males are usually larger than adult
females. Large males weigh up to 12 kg, and stand about 30 cm high at
evidence suggests that devil numbers were quite variable over the past
century, but were at historic highs in the early 1990s. They were
particularly common in forest, woodland and agricultural areas of
northern, eastern and central Tasmania.
These numbers have dropped since the 1996 identification of Devil Facial Tumour Disease (DFTD)
- a fatal condition in Tasmanian devils, characterised by cancers around the mouth and head.
has been a 80 per cent decline in spotlighting sightings since the
disease emerged. In the north-east of the State, where signs of the Devil Facial Tumour Disease
(DFTD) were first reported, there has been a 95 per cent decline
(approximately) of average spotlighting sightings from 1993-95 to
decline in numbers since the early 1990s, populations of Tasmanian
devils remain widespread in Tasmania from the coast to the mountains.
They live in coastal heath, open dry sclerophyll forest, and mixed
sclerophyll-rainforest - in fact, almost anywhere they can hide and find
shelter by day, and find food at night.
usually mate in March, and the young are born in April. Gestation is 21
days. More young are born than can be accommodated in the mother's
backward-opening pouch, which has 4 teats.
Although four pouch
young sometimes survive, the average number is 2 or 3. Each young,
firmly attached to a teat, is carried in the pouch for about 4 months.
After this time, the young start venturing out of the pouch and are then
left in a simple den - often a hollow log. Young are weaned at 5 or 6
months of age, and are thought to have left the mother and be living
alone in the bush by late December. They probably start breeding at the
end of their second year. Longevity is up to 7-8 years.
Tasmanian devil is mainly a scavenger and feeds on whatever is
available. Powerful jaws and teeth enable it to completely devour its
prey - bones, fur and all. Wallabies, and various small mammals and
birds, are eaten - either as carrion or prey. Reptiles, amphibians,
insects and even sea squirts have been found in the stomachs of wild
devils. Carcasses of sheep and cattle provide food in farming areas.
Tasmanian devils maintain bush and farm hygiene by cleaning up
carcasses. This can help reduce the risk of blowfly strike to sheep by
removing food for maggots.
Tasmanian devils are famous for their
rowdy communal feeding at carcasses - the noise and displays being used
to establish dominance amongst the pack.
Tasmanian devil is nocturnal (active after dark). During the day it
usually hides in a den, or dense bush. It roams considerable distances -
up to 16 km - along well-defined trails in search of food. It usually
ambles slowly with a characteristic gait but can gallop quickly with
both hind feet together. Young Tasmanian devils are more agile however
and can climb trees. Although not territorial, Tasmanian devils have a
The famous gape or yawn of the Tasmanian devil that
looks so threatening, can be misleading. This display is performed more
from fear and uncertainty than from aggression. Tasmanian devils produce
a strong odour when under stress, but when calm and relaxed they are
not smelly. The Tasmanian devil makes a variety of fierce noises, from
harsh coughs and snarls to high pitched screeches. A sharp sneeze is
used as a challenge to other devils, and frequently comes before a
fight. Many of these spectacular behaviours are bluff and part of a
ritual to minimise harmful fighting when feeding communally at a large
In May 2009, the Federal Government uplisted the Tasmanian devil to the 'endangered' category under the Commonwealth's Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999
The Tasmanian devil's status was formally upgraded to 'endangered' under Tasmania's Threatened Species Protection Act 1995
, in May 2008.
late 2008, the Tasmanian devil was also uplisted to 'Endangered' on the
Red List of the International Union for the Conservation of Nature and
Natural Resources (IUCN) - widely considered the most authoritative
system for classifying species in terms of their risk of extinction.
The Tasmanian devil is wholly protected.
their numbers were controlled by food availability, competition with
other devils and quolls, loss of habitat, persecution and roadkills. But
the greatest recent threat to devils across Tasmania is the Devil
Facial Tumour Disease (DFTD). In September 2006, the Tasmanian devil
disease was gazetted under the Animal Health Act
as a List B notifiable disease.
A potential, unquantified threat is the introduction into Tasmania of the red fox
which would compete directly with Tasmanian devil juveniles. Both
species share preferences for den sites and habitat, and are of similar